Metatarsal and phalangeal fractures are very common clinically, accounting for about 7% of the whole body fractures, of which 2/3 are Pantarsal Arthrodesis Plates, 1/3 are metatarsal fractures, and sesamoid fractures are extremely rare.
There are two causes of metatarsal fractures:
1. It is more commonly caused by direct violence, mostly caused by heavy objects hitting the dorsum of the foot, rolling the foot, twisting the foot, or accidentally kicking a hard object, or caused by firearm injury, blow injury, crush injury, machine twist injury etc. fractures.
2. Indirect violent violence causes fractures through conduction, leverage or rotation, so fractures do not occur at the violent contact site.
(1) Conduction: Falling from a height, the heel is directly violent due to the foot landing, and calcaneal fracture may occur. However, the trunk flexes sharply forward due to the action of gravity, and vertebral compression fractures can occur.
(2) Leverage: If you accidentally slip and fall while walking and land with your palm on the ground, the violence can be transmitted upward along the axis of the limb, resulting in fracture of any part of the upper limb, such as fracture of the distal radius.
(3) Rotation: If the body rotates in a certain direction during rotation, it can cause helical fracture of the tibia and fibula diaphysis.
3. muscle pull violence
In the process of sudden muscle tension and contraction - the antagonistic muscle fails to coordinate and is suddenly resisted, but the muscle still contracts and stretches involuntarily, which can cause avulsion and fracture of the patella and the olecranon of the ulna.
4. Accumulated violence without obvious trauma history, mostly due to excessive and unsuitable long-distance running or forced marching, can cause fatigue fracture of the second metatarsal or the lower end of the fibula.